Japanese Encephalitis In India
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Please download the presentation about Japanese Encephalitis in India from 2016 called Japanese Encephalitis In India.
By Associate Professor, Department of Organon of Medicine,
J.S.P.S. Government Homoeopathic Medical College, Ramanthapuram, Hyderabad 500013, India.
Prof. Shailendra K. Saxena
FAEB, FIVS, FBRS, FCMS, MNYAS (USA), MASM (USA), MASV (USA), PhD, DCAP, Professor & Head Department of Stem Cell / Cell culture Centre for Advance Research (CFAR), King George’s Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow – 226003, India.
About Japanese Encephalitis (JE)
- One of important viral encephalitis world-wide.
- Emerging disease in India.
- Primarily affects children under age 15 years.
- Cause of acute viral encephalitis.
- Leading cause of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Asia.
Japanese Encephalitis Statistics
- 70% of those who develop illness either die or survive with a long term neurological debility.
- Since the first case of JE was documented in the late 19th century, the disease has spread beyond its early domain – traveling as far as Australia by the year 2000.
- Over the past 60 years, it has been estimated that JE has infected 10 million children globally, killing 3 million and causing long-term disability in 4 million.
- Countries have not been able to generate adequate JE surveillance data because of the difficulty in making a clinical recognition of the disease.
- Reporting and the lack of sufficient laboratory support has also been a problem.
- Even in countries with adequate surveillance data, there are only a few interventions that countries can adopt to control the disease.
- Despite the fact that 68 percent of the babies born in Asia are at risk for JE, there remain major gaps on JE reporting, effecting decision making purposes.
- Historically, vector control has been the mainstay of JE control, but it has had a limited impact and requires large resources because the vector breeds in paddy fields.
About The Japanese Encephalitis Virus
- The JE virus (JEV) is a member of the genus Flaviviridae, together with the Yellow Fever virus and Dengue Virus.
- The JE virus belongs to the same serological group as the West Nile virus (WNV) and the Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV).
- With the help of genome sequencing studies, it has been possible to determine the various genotypes of JEV in circulation in different geographic areas
- The two Indian isolates [GP78 and Vellore P20778] show genetic similarity to the Chinese SA14 and Beijing genotypes.
Communicability and Transmission Of Japanese Encephalitis
- The JE virus is transmitted by the Culex mosquitoes particularly of the Culex vishnui group (Cx. tritaeneorhynchus).
- Water birds and pigs play a major role as amplifying hosts.
- Humans get infected following a bite by an infected mosquite.
- However, as human are dead end hosts, further spread from human to human does not take place.